I find the Internet just nothing to it, but need this information for a lecture where I must face Augustine and Descartes. For Augustine I found a lot but in Descartes it is unfortunately quite different: / know because someone made or has vllt. a link for me, hard to find and more of an insider's? Thanks in advance!
The best answer
René Descartes believes that the soul is created by God. The soul belongs to his understanding in the area of the thinking thing (res cogitans), the body in the area of extended thing (res extensa). These are two different substances, and both depend on God as a perfect substance. God is conceived as ultimate cause. (Principles of Philosophy 1644), Part 1; 22 God as "Creator of all things" (rerum omnium creatorem), Chapter called and is in Chapter 24 Thus, in "Principia philosophiae" (De principiis cognitionis Humanae Of the principles of human knowledge) it "God alone is true cause of all that is or can be" (Deus solus omnium, quae sunt aut esse possunt, vera est causa).
The people understood Descartes as something put together, a combination of two substances as a functional unit. The spirit as a whole is in the whole body and in any part of the body. The difference between mind and matter is provable, but known their unit / association only from everyday experience.
The mind is connected in humans with the whole body, when it receives the immediate impressions only from the central office of the pineal / epiphysis (Conarium) in the brain. Descartes understands the pineal gland than common sense (sensus communis) and place where the physical imagination shows. The pineal gland is interpreted as information and movement headquarters, transmitted by the animal spirits (animal spirits) originating excitation / pulses and from where as organic headquarters of the soul with the help of the spirits, the nerves and the blood that susceptible to the impressions of the spirits are, pulses are emitted. Cf. especially René Descartes, Les passions de l'âme (1649; The Passions / Passions of the Soul)., Section 1.
Descartes has come up with explanations of how the unity of mind and body, which are connected in a composition together, and the interactions / and influences between them are thinking exactly struggled and was located in the approaches to which he strove more the unit safely as a fact than in how they are and the exact nature of the interactions / and influences and can be explained and demonstrated.
A deviation from the previously common thinking is Descartes is not to understand the soul as a life principle. As Descartes in his 1641 published work "Meditations on First Philosophy" (Meditations on First Philosophy) sets out (2nd Meditation; De natura mentis humanae: quod ipsa sit notior quam corpus; about the nature of the human mind: that he is known as the body), are thinking for him thing, mind, soul, mind / intellect and reason / ratio basically the same meaning (sum igitur praecise tantum res cogitans, id est mens, sive animus, sive intellectus, sive ratio). The soul belongs to the thinking substance, understood as spirit, directed in knowledge on yourself by thinking are contents of consciousness.
While Descartes considered an expressed already by Aristotle interpretation of the soul continues to exist as a formal principle, a new feature modern times is to not understand the soul as a life principle (see the brief overview Helmut Holzhey, soul IV 3. Descartes in:... Historical Dictionary of philosophy Volume 9:. Se - Sp Basel: Schwabe, 1995, column 29 - 32)..
An idea in Descartes is: For human conditioning (dispositio) God pours the human body (which is construed in a mechanical point of view of the organism as engine / automatic) a spiritual soul.
"Discourse méthode pour bien conduire sa raison et chercher la verité dans les sciences» (1637; Discourse on Method to use his reason well and to seek the truth in the sciences) though is a treatise on the method, contains in 5 . section as well as some statements about God, creation, nature and soul / spirit.
"Meditations on First Philosophy" (Meditations on First Philosophy), 6. Meditation (De Rerum materialium existentia et reali mentis a corpore distinctione; About the existence of material things and the real distinction of the spirit from the body) is an epistemological view. But you can also be seen that Descartes God accepts as the creator of the spirit.
God first creates the body, then, separately, soul / spirit, then establishes a connection / sets soul / spirit the body a.
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